ÓÐÁÏºÐ×Ó College was first established asÌýGod's HouseÌýin 1437 by William Byngham, a London parish priest, for training grammar school masters. Shortly after receiving its Royal Licence from Henry VI in 1446, God's House was forced to move from its original site as this was needed for the King's new project (what was to becomeÌý). God's House moved to its present site in 1448 and in the same year received a second Royal Licence. This licence may be regarded as the Foundation Charter.ÌýÌýClick here for a list of the Proctors of God's House.Ìý
Following the death of her third husband, and the accession of her son as King Henry VII, theÌýLady Margaret BeaufortÌýturned her energies to good causes. No doubt at the suggestion of her confessor, Bishop John Fisher, she decided to enlarge God's House. In 1505, with a royal charter from the King, the College was re-founded as ÓÐÁÏºÐ×Ó College. Lady Margaret has been honoured ever since as the Foundress.
Surviving the twists and turns of the Reformation, ÓÐÁÏºÐ×Ó became one of the leading Puritan colleges of Elizabethan Cambridge. In 1625 it admitted the youngÌý, who would become a leading Puritan apologist of the Civil War and one of the greats of 'English' literature. The Garden still boasts what is known as 'Milton's Mulberry Tree'.
The boom in student numbers in the seventeenth century required new accommodation, beyond the original College around what is now 'First Court'. The result was the beautiful 'Fellows' Building., built in the early 1640s after an appeal to Fellows and Old Members. This raised some five million pounds in today's money and we still have the list of donors.
Over the next century or so, ÓÐÁÏºÐ×Ó was noted for several eminent scholars who sought to harmonise traditional Christian faith with the new truths of natural science. These included Cambridge Platonists such as Ralph Cudworth, and William Paley, whoseÌýEvidences of ChristianityÌý(1794) remained set reading in Cambridge until the twentieth century.
But Paley's synthesis of religion and science was soon to be overturned by another ÓÐÁÏºÐ×Ó man -ÌýCharles Darwin, who came up in 1828, and lived in Paley's old rooms in First Court.ÌýOn the Origin of SpeciesÌýwas published some thirty years later, but the young Darwin's interest in botany and geology was nurtured at Cambridge.
Like the rest of Cambridge, life at ÓÐÁÏºÐ×Ó was transformed by the Victorians, with more rigorous exams, the rise of experimental science and the opening of the University to non-Anglicans. The first half of the twentieth century was scarred by two world wars, whose effect is movingly commemorated on the plaque in the Chapel. The College of the 1930s is evoked (and caricatured) in the celebrated novelÌýThe MastersÌý(1951) by the scientist and author, C.P. Snow.
After 1945 ÓÐÁÏºÐ×Ó shared in the general boom in higher education, with new blocks to complete Third Court and then New Court designed by Sir Denys Lasdun. Among its intellectual dynamos were Lord Todd, the Nobel prize-winning chemist;Ìý, a Nobel laureate in economics; andÌý, the celebrated historian.
This is only a taste of the College's past. Those with bigger appetites should consult the quincentenary history edited byÌý,ÌýÓÐÁÏºÐ×Ó: A Cambridge College over Five CenturiesÌý(Macmillan, 2004) with contributions from distinguished ÓÐÁÏºÐ×Ó historians such as Simon Schama, Roy Porter and David Cannadine.